VERSA:T: STEEL DECK FLOORING SYSTEM



Composite Strength. Design Flexibility. Light Weight.


Durable, high performance composite steel deck floor systems have been the system of choice of design professionals and builders for decades.  These systems have been thoroughly tested and evaluated as reflected in the standards established and practiced worldwide.  Advances in composite deck research provide systems that combine long span capabilities, attractive appearance, sound absorption and numerous other serviceability and sustainability demands. Long spans, shallow depths, and reduced tonnage. The VERSA:T: Flat Beam system with long span composite deck enables designers to specify a structural steel based flat slab design with 2 hour fire assembly rating without spray fireproofing.




Fast and Safe to Build. Cost Effective.


During construction, multiple processes can happen simultaneously on one floor. (see highlighted text below) Faster floor-to-floor assembly is the result—with higher quality design execution and easier floor framing. Off-site parts fabrication allows just-in-time assembly. The result? You can compete on jobs with more aggressive schedules and with fewer people, accelerating your time to market and maintaining desirable profit margins.
Value is determined by combining initial costs, life-cycle costs, and overall performance. Steel deck assemblies are the best value in floor and roof designs, combining low cost with top performance. Steel competes admirably on projects with aggressive construction schedules.  Efficient installation techniques employed by a reduced labor pool accelerate the process.  Controlling labor and equipment costs is vital to assuring desirable profit margins.
 
Steel construction allows multiple processes to occur simultaneously.  Off-site, accurate fabrication is performed swiftly while “on-time” product delivery facilitates rigorous scheduling demands.  Faster floor-to-floor installation releases other trades to perform their tasks sooner.  Also, steel’s time honored installation details and methods streamline the design process and ease inspection.
 
During the construction phase, large bundles can be rapidly craned into position in the tightest surroundings, thus reducing traffic disruption and ground level storage issues below. Because composite deck serves as a “permanent” form, once in place workers are provided with an immediate and safe working platform. 
 
In service, a combination of mechanical and chemical bonding between the deck and the cured concrete topping assures that the deck provides the necessary tensile reinforcement for the slab, eliminating the need for field installation of positive bending reinforcing bars. 
 


All Weather Construction


Steel deck can be erected in most weather conditions, eliminating costly delays that can occur with other types of floor and roof systems.
 


Versatility


Composite steel decks complying with Steel Deck Institute (SDI) specifications are available from the member companies in various profiles, depths, flute spacing and cover widths, with or without stiffening elements, with or without acoustical material, cellular and non-cellular.  Coupled with ASTM pre-qualified steel, designers can fine-tune their analysis to provide the optimum steel thickness for a given loading condition. This extensive choice makes steel deck applicable to a wide range of projects and structural designs.
 
The installation of composite steel deck units involves traditional techniques involving a multiplicity of fastening methods to meet structural need or preference of the deck erector. Once spread over the supports, the self-aligning deck panels are attached to the supports with welds or mechanical fasteners. 
 
Deck sidelaps, traditionally involving screw or plug weld connectors, may also employ “green friendly” crimping tools developed by a number of prominent deck manufacturers.   In some cases, the sidelap crimp ensures the necessary “interlock” between the deck units and the concrete topping of the composite slab system.
 
Recent innovations include the development of low profile, long-span composite floor decks capable of spans exceeding 30 feet (10.7m).  Long-span floors provide flexibility to designers wishing to create wide-open spaces free of dropped filler beams.
 


Low Profile Assemblies


Reducing floor heights is of significance when jurisdictions impose restrictions on structures to accommodate the limits of their fire fighting equipment or to maintain a community’s visual appeal.  In part, this is why low-profile floors systems have captured a larger portion of the mid-rise residential market as developers attempt to ‘squeeze in’ another floor. 
 
Because composite floor decks need shallow concrete depths to achieve their fire resistance ratings, they help reduce floor-to-floor height and provide an opportunity to shed a portion of the cost of expensive curtain walls and service risers.
 
Additionally, steel beams use the composite slab as a compression element, which increases stiffness and reduces their size.
 


Limited to No Shoring


Depending on the structural properties of the deck section and the level of superimposed loading due to the wet concrete topping and the workers applying it, unshored lengths in excess of 20 feet are obtainable.  Where long span in-service composite floors are desired, most often only a single shoring row consisting of a header beam supported by height adjustable posts, is provided at mid-span of the deck.  Simplified shoring, if required, further accelerates the progress of construction.
 


Construction Phase Bracing


Once fixed to the structural frame, the composite deck forms a diaphragm that will transmit lateral loads to the structure’s vertical bracing elements.  The deck, therefore, contributes significantly to the stability of the structure during construction.
 


Structural Strength with Less Weight


The properties of steel are used with maximum efficiency in the design and fabrication of steel decks, resulting in products with a high strength-to-weight ratio. Because fluted deck displaces concrete, a composite steel deck floor system uses less concrete compared to conventional flat plate slabs.  Less concrete means less weight and subsequent reductions in the size and cost of elements used in the primary structure and the foundations.  Weight reduction also positively influences the design of lateral bracing systems controlled by seismic activity. As a result, delivery, erection, and structural framing costs can be lower than with other systems.
 


Life Safety


The concrete filled VERSA:T: flat beam system combined with a composite deck system enables designers to specify a structural steel based design offering a 2-hour fire assembly rating without resorting to spray fireproofing or the addition of other protective measures like furred gypsum or rated suspended ceilings to develop the rating.
U.L. fire resistance ratings on standard roof and floor assemblies have been obtained by the Steel Deck Institute. Individual SDI manufacturers have ratings on their own products. Most fire resistance requirements can be met with products manufactured by SDI members.
 


Attractive Appearance


While historically considered to be primarily a structural element, composite floor decks also offer designers exposed finished ceiling options.  Exposed deck options include standard and deep fluted, those outfitted with factory installed cellular liner panels offering a smooth, flat appearance and others involving a dovetail shaped profile providing a dramatic linear plank look.


Performance Coatings


Hot dipped galvanized coil steel combined with performance-engineered factory and field applied paint coatings makes an exposed ceiling deck surface durable and maintenance free.  Custom designed deck coatings include those with anti-microbial agents for health care facilities and polymer laminate coatings for use in aggressive environments like exposed parking structures.
 


Sound Control


Between Spaces:  Sound performance is a critical factor influencing the selection of any structural support system.  High-density concrete floors, integrated with any of a number of acoustical enhancing collateral materials, provide the optimum in sound control between rooms.  Sound Transmission Class (STC) and Impact Insulation Class (IIC) ratings exceeding 60 are obtainable making composite deck slabs the best system for luxury hotels, condominiums and hospital wards.
 

Within a Space:  Composite deck systems that absorb sound are available to control noise reflectance and reverberation back into a room.  Doing so requires profiles outfitted with perforations and batt insulation that allow for the transfer and absorption of sound energy.  Both the aforementioned cellular and dovetail shaped composite decks can be converted to acoustical decks, with some assemblies offering laboratory tested Noise Reduction Coefficients (NRC) values up to 1.0.
 


Sustainable Construction


Optimize Energy Performance

Concrete = thermal mass = stabilized temperatures = reduced energy consumption

Construction Waste Management

Ability to divert unused product from Landfill
Small amount of job site waste and what little there is 100% recyclable


Recycled Material

Steel used is fully recyclable at the end of the building’s life
Coil steel 25 to 82% recycled content


Local/Regional Materials

There is a higher likelihood that products are manufactured regionally (within 500 miles of site)

Safe Materials

Low-Emitting Materials:  Paints and Coatings

Lower or eliminate release of on-site VOC’s with factory painted decking


Innovation in Design

Speed (Simplicity and ease of Construction):Large bundles can be rapidly craned into position, reducing traffic disruption and overcoming ground level storage issues. With minimal mesh reinforcement and pumped concrete, the completed floor can quickly follow.
Props eliminated: Temporary props can usually be eliminated. Superior design typically eliminates propping. The result is faster erection and a shortening of the construction program.
Lightweight and easy to handle: Even into difficult to access zones

Working Platform: Once laid, the deck acts as a safe working platform for all subsequent subtrades and as a safety barrier to overhead hazards.

Construction Stage Bracing: The deck acts as a lateral restraint and forms a diaphragm, transmitting wind loads from the outer steelwork to the core. Therefore, once the decking is fixed, it contributes significantly to the stability of the structure.