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GLOSSARY



Anodizing is the process of putting a protective, often colored, oxide film on a metal by an electrolytic process in which the metal serves as the anode.

Composite steel joists are load-carrying members suitable for direct support of one-way floor or roof systems. Members may consist of hot-rolled or cold-formed steel, including cold-formed steel whose yield strength has been attained by cold working.

Composite system is a term used to describe various combinations of steel and concrete. There are a number of ways to composite horizontal and vertical elements, including: composite slabs, composite girders, composite columns, composite diagonals, composite shear walls.

Composite building systems are: shear wall systems, shear wall-frame interacting systems, tube systems, vertically mixed systems, and mega frames with super columns.

A curtain wall is a non-weight-bearing wall used to enclose a structural skeleton.

Extrusion is a process by which metal is forced through a series of dies to create complex shapes.

Framing System: In multi-story buildings, the framing system is a load-bearing structure giving the building stability and structural integrity. Typically, the framing system of a tall building combines stacked vertical columns with interconnected horizontal beams. Generally, the vertical columns and horizontal beams are fabricated from steel, precast concrete, or formed-in-place concrete. The horizontal beams usually support flooring sections that are also made of steel, precast concrete, formed-in-place concrete, or metal. The three most common methods of erecting framing systems are: 1) pouring concrete in place using forms to produce vertical columns, horizontal beams and floor sections; 2) assembling precast concrete columns, beams and floor sections, and; 3) assembling steel columns and beams with steel or concrete floor sections. None of these framing systems offer a structure that is highly rigid and fire resistant while at the same time being easy to assemble

A girder is a large beam, often built up from smaller pieces, designed to support concentrated loads at isolated points.

The Hall process is an electrolytic recovery process for aluminum employing a fused-bauxite (aluminum oxide), cryolite electrolyte.

I-beams resemble a capital “I” in section. A steel I-beam is a type of joist or girder made from structural steel. It has a strong central core capped with flanges on either side. Several fabrication techniques are used to create steel I-beams. Many are rolled or extruded, processed on metalworking machinery, which creates standardized beams rapidly. Other steel I-beams, sometimes called plate girders, are made by riveting or welding sections of steel plate.

Joists are any of the wood, steel, or concrete beams set parallel from wall to wall or across or abutting girders to support a floor or ceiling.

A load-bearing wall is a wall designed to support all or part of a building’s weight. Reinforced concrete is concrete with steel bars embedded in it to improve resistance to tension.

Shear wall: In building construction, a shear wall is a rigid vertical diaphragm capable of transferring lateral forces from exterior walls, floors, and roofs to the ground foundation in a direction parallel to their planes. An example is the reinforced-concrete wall. Shear walls are especially important in high-rise buildings subject to lateral wind and seismic forces.

Skeleton-frame construction is a type of steel construction in which the loads and stresses are transmitted to the building foundation by a three-dimensional framework of steel columns and beams that support the walls.

Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon that is hard and strong and can be pounded or rolled into the desired shape.

Structural steel framing is a linear system that forms a skeletal frame. It can be spanned by composite concrete and steel decking or cans-in-place or precast concrete.